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POPES OF THE RENAISSANCE

 

Link to a more comprehensive page about all the Medieval & Renaissance Popes in Paradoxplace

 

Link to the Medici Popes

 

Link to Paradoxplace Portrait Pages

 

 

Still being developed

 

Martin V

Odo Colonna

Rome

1417 - 1431

The Council of Konstanz (1414 - 1418) deposes three competing Popes (including the "Medici mate" Baldassare Cossa) and restores a single papacy in Rome with Martin V as Pope.

Eugenius IV

Gabriele Condulmaro

Venice

1431 - 1447

 

Nicholas V

Tommaso Parentucelli

Sarzana

1447 - 1455

 

Callistus III

Alfonso de Borgia

Valencia

(Spain)

1455 - 1458

Uncle of the infamous Roderigo, Alexander VI

Pius II

 

Chronology Link

 

Portraits

Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini

 

Portraits

Pienza (South of Siena), which he recreated as the first "new town" of the Renaissance.

1405

1458

1464

(59)

Sienese humanist Pope whose life is celebrated in ten huge (recently restored) narrative frescos painted by Pinturicchio in 1502-09, in the Piccolomini Library in the Siena Duomo.  His books and manuscripts themselves never actually got moved there, and were eventually sold off by his family, who wanted the money.   "After the ... austere church, the visual impact of the room is unforgettable - full of light and enlivened by colours of an incredible freshness and variety."   Also a mind blowing demonstration of the newly discovered Renaissance science of perspective and vanishing points plus don't miss a couple of grotesque panels on the ceiling borders.

Paul II

Pietro Barbo

Venice

1464 -1471

 

Sixtus IV

Francesco della Rovere

Savona

1414

1471

1484

(70)

Intellectually powerful Franciscan.  Father of the Sistine Chapel, and the use of Renaissance artists (particularly Pinturicchio) in the Vatican, of the Spanish Inquisition and of serious nepotism all over the place.  Builder of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome.  Behind the scenes instigator of the Pazzi Conspiracy which led to the death of Guiuliano de'Medici, brother of Lorenzo

Innocent VIII

Giovanni Battista Cibo

Genoa

1484 - 1492

 

 

 

Buy from Amazon UK

 

 

 

Alexander VI

Roderigo de Borgia

 

Portrait

 

Valencia

(Spain)

1431

1492

1503

(72)

From the Spanish de Borgia family (nephew of Callistus III), and famous for things other than religious fervour or statesmanlike abilities!!  Father of the ghastly Cesare and maligned Lucrezia and several others.  Lover of  Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani, the drop dead gorgeous Giulia Farnese, and many others.  

 

Link to Borgia portraits.

Pius III

Francesco

Todeschini-Piccolomini

Siena

1503

 

Julius II

Giuliano della Rovere

 

Portrait

 

Savona

1443

1503

1513

(70)

A Franciscan, like his nepotistic uncle Pope Francesco, who had ensured that Giuliano got in depth senior Vatican experiences from an early age.  It was therefore surprising that Guiliano the Pope was actively anti-nepotistic and anti-simonistic - though at the same time he also raised the art of marketing indulgencies to dizzy heights.  Known as "the Terrible", Julius was big, strong and had a legendary temper and was in his element at the head of the papal army going into battle.  At the same time he was a leading patron of the arts, especially Michelangelo, Bramante and Raphael.  A very Renaissance pope!

 

Leo X

 

Link to Medici Popes

Giovanni de'Medici

 

Portraits

 

Florence

1475

1513

1521

(46)

Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, the first of the Medici Popes, was a party animal.

 

Buried in Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in old Rome, along with his cousin Clement VII, the Florentine painter Fra Angelico, Sienese Santa Caterina (without head, which was souvenired by Siena) and others.

Adrian VI

Adrian Florensz Dedal

Utrecht

1522 - 1523

 

Clement VII

 

Link to Medici Popes

 

Chronology Link

Giulio de'Medici (de'Monte)

 

Portraits

 

Florence

1478

1523

1534

(56)

The Medici Pope who excommunicated Henry VIII and England, and got evicted from Rome by Charles V - Link to Insight Page on the Monarchs of Early Modern Europe.

 

Buried in Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in old Rome, along with his cousin Leo X, the painter Fra Angelico, Santa Caterina (without head, which was souvenired by Siena) and others. 

Paul III

Alessandro Farnese

 

Portrait

 

 

 

Palazzo Farnese, Rome

Canino (Viterbo)

1468

1534

1549

(81)

Brother of the drop dead gorgeous Giulia, who became favoured lover of Borgia Pope Allesandro VI, and of whom tragically no provable images survive.   Because of this relationship he was showered with favours and money and became Cardinal at 25, but two Medici Popes (both younger than him) had to pass by before he got his turn on the Throne of Saint Peter at the age of 68.

 

Paul III was the Pope of the Counter Reformation who kicked off the Council of Trent in 1545 at the age of  77.  Four more Popes were to occupy the throne of Saint Peter before the Council ended in 1563.

 

The Council decided that  the Reformation needed to be rolled back (or stopped from further expansion anyway).  Two of the European instruments used in this were the Jesuits (founded by S Ignatius Loyola in 1534) to teach, and an expanded Inquisition (which originated in Spain in 1478)  to root out and eliminate those who did not want to be taught!

 

It was 1562 before the deliberations got round to music, resulting in the banning of masses based on popular songs (which most of them were) and other "distractive" music. Luckily Palestrina and Victoria were in Rome to take up the challenge of producing the new church music, and produced a transcendently beautiful style that was to retain its influence into the eighteenth century.

 

He was also responsible for one of the world's most beautiful palaces - the Farnese Palace in Rome, designed by Antonio di Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo and containing a famous cycle of frescoes by Annibale Carracci painted between 1597 and 1604. 

 

The French have the exclusive use of the Palazzo as their embassy, but it is possible to join a tour which runs on most Thursdays provided you book a couple of months in advance (booking via French Consulate -  www.france-italia.it ) .

 

Julius III

Giovanni del Monte

Rome

1550 - 1555

 

Marcellus II

Marcello Cervini

Montepulciano

1555

 

Paul IV

Gian Pietro Caraffa

Naples

1555 - 1559

 

Pius IV

Giovanni de'Medici

Milan

1559 - 1565

The Pope who presided over the closing phase of the 18 year Council of Trent.  Not related at all to the Florentine Medicis.

St Pius V

Antonio Ghislieri

Bosco Marengo

 (Turin)

1566 - 1572

 

Gregory XIII

Ugo Buoncompagni

Bologna

1572 - 1585

 

 

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